Logic pro x user manual free
Please see CLP Z for more information. This is an instance of the general CLP X scheme section 8 , extending logic programming with reasoning over specialised domains. Read The Power of Prolog to understand how this library is meant to be used in practice.
In most cases, arithmetic constraints section A. For satisfactory performance, arithmetic constraints are implicitly rewritten at compilation time so that low-level fallback predicates are automatically used whenever possible. Almost all Prolog programs also reason about integers. Important concepts and principles of this library are illustrated by means of usage examples that are available in a public git repository: github.
If you are used to the complicated operational considerations that low-level arithmetic primitives necessitate, then moving to CLP FD constraints may, due to their power and convenience, at first feel to you excessive and almost like cheating. It isn’t. Constraints are an integral part of all popular Prolog systems, and they are designed to help you eliminate and avoid the use of low-level and less general primitives by providing declarative alternatives that are meant to be used instead.
When teaching Prolog, CLP FD constraints should be introduced before explaining low-level arithmetic predicates and their procedural idiosyncrasies. This is because constraints are easy to explain, understand and use due to their purely relational nature. In contrast, the modedness and directionality of low-level arithmetic primitives are impure limitations that are better deferred to more advanced lectures.
We recommend the following reference PDF: metalevel. The best way to discuss applying, improving and extending CLP FD constraints is to use the dedicated clpfd tag on stackoverflow. Several of the world’s foremost CLP FD experts regularly participate in these discussions and will help you for free on this platform.
In modern Prolog systems, arithmetic constraints subsume and supersede low-level predicates over integers. The main advantage of arithmetic constraints is that they are true relations and can be used in all directions. For most programs, arithmetic constraints are the only predicates you will ever need from this library. See declarative integer arithmetic section A. The arithmetic constraints section A.
For example:. However, an important advantage of arithmetic constraints is their purely relational nature: Constraints can be used in all directions , also if one or more of their arguments are only partially instantiated.
This relational nature makes CLP FD constraints easy to explain and use, and well suited for beginners and experienced Prolog programmers alike. In contrast, when using low-level integer arithmetic, we get:. Due to the necessary operational considerations, the use of these low-level arithmetic predicates is considerably harder to understand and should therefore be deferred to more advanced lectures.
For supported expressions, CLP FD constraints are drop-in replacements of these low-level arithmetic predicates, often yielding more general programs. For example, the predicate:.
This illustrates why the performance of CLP FD constraints is almost always completely satisfactory when they are used in modes that can be handled by low-level arithmetic. This program uses CLP FD constraints instead of low-level arithmetic throughout, and everything that would have worked with low-level arithmetic also works with CLP FD constraints, retaining roughly the same performance. Now the point: Due to the increased flexibility and generality of CLP FD constraints, we are free to reorder the goals as follows:.
In this concrete case, termination properties of the predicate are improved. For example, the following queries now both terminate:. For example, the two programs do not even have the same termination properties in all cases. Instead, the primary benefit of CLP FD constraints is that they allow you to try different execution orders and apply declarative debugging techniques at all! Reordering goals and clauses can significantly impact the performance of Prolog programs, and you are free to try different variants if you use declarative approaches.
Moreover, since all CLP FD constraints always terminate , placing them earlier can at most improve , never worsen, the termination properties of your programs. In the case above, the clauses are mutually exclusive if the first argument is sufficiently instantiated. In addition to subsuming and replacing low-level arithmetic predicates, CLP FD constraints are often used to solve combinatorial problems such as planning, scheduling and allocation tasks.
Each CLP FD variable has an associated set of admissible integers, which we call the variable’s domain. The process of determining and adjusting domains of variables is called constraint propagation , and it is performed automatically by this library. When the domain of a variable contains only one element, then the variable is automatically unified to that element. In this concrete case, the constraint solver is strong enough to find the unique solution without any search.
For the general case, see search section A. The answers emitted by the toplevel are called residual programs , and the goals that comprise each answer are called residual goals. In each case above, and as for all pure programs, the residual program is declaratively equivalent to the original query.
From the residual goals, it is clear that the constraint solver has deduced additional domain restrictions in many cases. To inspect residual goals, it is best to let the toplevel display them for us. These predicates can be useful if you want to implement your own labeling strategies. It is good practice to keep the modeling part, via a dedicated predicate called the core relation , separate from the actual search for solutions. This lets us observe termination and determinism properties of the core relation in isolation from the search, and more easily try different search strategies.
Sample query and its result actual variables replaced for readability :. From this answer, we see that this core relation terminates and is in fact deterministic. Moreover, we see from the residual goals that the constraint solver has deduced more stringent bounds for all variables. Such observations are only possible if modeling and search parts are cleanly separated.
In this case, it suffices to label a subset of variables to find the puzzle’s unique solution, since the constraint solver is strong enough to reduce the domains of remaining variables to singleton sets. In general though, it is necessary to label all variables to obtain ground solutions. We illustrate the concepts of the preceding sections by means of the so-called eight queens puzzle. The task is to place 8 queens on an 8×8 chessboard such that none of the queens is under attack.
This means that no two queens share the same row, column or diagonal. Since CLP FD constraints reason over integers , we must find a way to map the positions of queens to integers.
Several such mappings are conceivable, and it is not immediately obvious which we should use. On top of that, different constraints can be used to express the desired relations. For such reasons, modeling combinatorial problems via CLP FD constraints often necessitates some creativity and has been described as more of an art than a science.
In our concrete case, we observe that there must be exactly one queen per column. The following representation therefore suggests itself: We are looking for 8 integers, one for each column, where each integer denotes the row of the queen that is placed in the respective column, and which are subject to certain constraints. In fact, let us now generalize the task to the so-called N queens puzzle , which is obtained by replacing 8 by N everywhere it occurs in the above description.
Note that all these predicates can be used in all directions : We can use them to find solutions, test solutions and complete partially instantiated solutions. Experimenting with different search strategies is easy because we have separated the core relation from the actual search. See the labeling options min Expr and max Expr , respectively. This way, we can observe properties of the core relation in isolation, and try different labeling options without recompiling our code.
However, it is often very valuable to see alternative solutions that are also optimal, so that we can choose among optimal solutions by other criteria. Let P and Q denote reifiable constraints or Boolean variables, then:. When reasoning over Boolean variables, also consider using CLP B constraints as provided by library clpb. For example, adding constraints can yield new solutions:. This behaviour is highly problematic from a logical point of view, and it may render declarative debugging techniques inapplicable.
When this flag is true , we must wrap variables that occur in arithmetic expressions with the functor? We can define custom constraints. The mechanism to do this is not yet finalised, and we welcome suggestions and descriptions of use cases that are important to you. As an example of how it can be done currently, let us define a new custom constraint oneground X,Y,Z , where Z shall be 1 if at least one of X and Y is instantiated:.
From now on, the propagator will be invoked whenever the domains of X or Y are changed. As explained, this predicate is automatically called by the constraint solver. An example of using the new constraint:.
Ulrich was also the first and most determined tester of the present system, filing hundreds of comments and suggestions for improvement. Tom Schrijvers has contributed several constraint libraries to SWI-Prolog, and I learned a lot from his coding style and implementation examples. Bart Demoen was a driving force behind the implementation of attributed variables in SWI-Prolog, and this library could not even have started without his prior work and contributions.
Thank you all! This can at most increase the generality of your programs. In addition to its regular use in tasks that require it, this constraint can also be useful to eliminate uninteresting symmetries from a problem. For example, all possible matches between pairs built from four players in total:.
If you are using CLP FD to model and solve combinatorial tasks, then you typically need to specify the admissible domains of variables. See the the section about core relations and search for more information.
The variable selection strategy lets you specify which variable of Vars is labeled next and is one of:. Labeling Vars must make Expr ground. If several such options are specified, they are interpreted from left to right, e.
This generates solutions in descending order of X, and for each binding of X, solutions are generated in ascending order of Y. Labeling is always complete, always terminates, and yields no redundant solutions. See core relations and search section A. A global constraint expresses a relation that involves many variables at once.
Creationauts – Logic Pro Colorizer
Order books:. The most in-depth explanations of all the new features and changes in Logic Pro With unique diagrams you won’t find anywhere else. Preview it. There are also a few free books. Want to start with GarageBand first?
Graphically Enhanced Manuals. Your books can be considered as a reference model for software manuals. Transform a loose performance into one that locks tight into the groove using region-based parameters for note velocity, timing, and dynamics.
As your song develops, Logic Pro X helps organize all your ideas and select the best ones. Group related tracks, audition alternate versions, and consolidate multiple tracks. Lightning-fast click-and-drag comping helps you build your best performance from multiple takes. Create alternate versions of a track or multiple grouped tracks, and switch between them at any time to audition different options.
Create, store, and select from different edits and arrangements of track regions to make it easier to experiment with various creative ideas. Click and drag to choose the best sections of each take to create a seamless comp, complete with transition-smoothing crossfades.
Save multiple comps and switch among them to pick the one you like best. Consolidate multiple related tracks into a single track. Use a Summing Stack as a quick way to create submixes. Or create layered and split instruments.
Load any version to make changes without compromising your original. Assign any selection of channels to a track group, then control the levels or other parameters of all tracks in the group from any single channel in the group.
Easily capture changes to any channel strip or plug-in parameter. Just enable automation, press Play, and make your changes. Broadcom driver installation software. In the Logic Pro Library, click a category on the left. You can audition audio patches by clicking them, then playing your instrument, singing, or making sound, to find the one you want to use. For more information about choosing patches, see Logic Pro patches overview. Prepare for audio recording Before you start recording audio in Logic Pro, do the following:.
Record on an audio track 1. In the Logic Pro track list, select the header of the audio track you want to record on. Click the Record button in the control bar or press R to start recording. After a one-bar count-in, recording starts. The recording appears as a new audio region on the track as you record.
Click the Stop button in the control bar or press the Space bar to stop recording. For more information about recording on an audio track, see Overview of recording in Logic Pro and Record sound from a microphone or instrument in Logic Pro.
For information about connecting microphones and other audio devices, see Using audio devices with Logic Pro overview. Logic Pro features a complete library of professional-quality software instruments, including synthesizers and other keyboards, guitars, drums, world instruments, and more.
A patch contains the instrument, effects, and routing settings that control the sound of the track. You can change the sound of a software instrument track by choosing a different patch from the Library. In the Library, you can also audition patches to find the one you want to use.
You record a software instrument on a software instrument track in the Tracks area. The recording appears as a MIDI region on the selected software instrument track.
You can have the metronome play as you record, or play only a one-bar count-in before recording starts. If your music keyboard has other controls, such as faders, knobs, or drum pads, try using them as well.
The new track appears in the Tracks area, and the Library opens on the left. You can audition software instrument patches by clicking them in the Library, then playing your music keyboard, to find the one you want to use.
Record a software instrument 1. Select the software instrument track you want to record to. The recording appears as a new software instrument region on the track as you record. For more information about recording software instruments, see Overview of recording in Logic Pro and Record software instruments in Logic Pro.
Audio tracks also feature an Input Monitoring button. The track headers are located along the left side of the Tracks area, so you can easily see the mute, solo, and other settings for all tracks while working. The Solo button turns yellow, and the Mute buttons of all unsoloed tracks flash blue.
Click the button a second time to restore the track to its previous state. Option-click the slider to return it to a neutral level 0 dB gain. The dot on the wheel indicates the current position. The corresponding buttons on all the swiped tracks switch to the same state.
For more information about working with tracks, see Logic Pro Tracks overview. For information about using the track controls, see Logic Pro track header overview. You choose a patch in the Library, which applies those settings to the selected track.
You can try out different sounds for the track by choosing a different patches, as long as the patch is compatible with the track type. Patches can include one or more channel strip settings, and can also contain routing information auxes and metadata for Smart Controls and controller mapping. Patches for audio tracks can include default effects settings. Patches for software instrument tracks include an instrument plug-in as well as effects settings.
The patches displayed in the Library depend on the track type. For example, when an audio, software instrument, or Drummer track is selected, patches for that track type are available. Choose a patch for the selected track 1. In Logic Pro, click the Library button in the control bar or double-click the track header to open the Library.
Choose a patch category from the list on the left, then choose a patch from the list on the right. You can quickly move through the patches in the list using the Up and Down Arrow keys.
You can search for patches by name in the Library, edit patches by changing channel strip settings, adding plug-ins, or editing plug-in parameters, and save your own custom patches. Get started arranging regions in Logic Pro The Tracks area is where you arrange the recordings, Apple Loops, and other musical material in your project, organizing them into sections such as intro, verse, and chorus to build an arrangement.
The Tracks area shows a visual representation of time moving from left to right. You build a project by arranging regions in rows called tracks, that run horizontally across the Tracks area. Regions appear as rounded rectangles in the Tracks area. There are several different types of regions, depending on the track type. The two primary region types are audio regions, which show the audio waveform, and MIDI regions, which show note events as thin rectangles.
You can arrange regions in a variety of ways in the Tracks area, by moving, looping, resizing, splitting, joining, and deleting them. Try following the tasks below, using regions in the project.
Move a region In Logic Pro, do any of the following:. Resize a region 1. In the Logic Pro Tracks area, move the pointer over the lower-right edge of a region. Drag the edge of the region horizontally to shorten or lengthen it.
In the Logic Pro Tracks area, place the pointer over the upper-right edge of the region. When you drag the edge of the region out by its full length, rounded corners indicate the beginning and end of each complete repetition of the region. Split a region using the playhead 1. In the Logic Pro Tracks area, select the region you want to split. Only the selected region is split, even if an unselected region on another track is under the playhead as well. If multiple regions are selected and are under the playhead, they are all split.
Split a region using the Scissors tool 1. When selecting a cut point with the Scissors tool, you can move backward and forward in steps of one division. The grid is based on the Snap pop-up menu setting. For information about using Snap, see Snap items to the grid in Logic Pro.
For more information about arranging a project, see Logic Pro Arranging overview. For information about working in the tracks area, see Logic Pro Tracks area overview. A keyboard graphic along the left edge of the Piano Roll Editor provides an easy guide to the pitches of notes. On the left are controls for quantizing the timing and pitch of MIDI notes, and editing their velocity. The header shows the name of the selected region, or the number of regions if more than one is selected , as well as the pitch and position of the pointer in the region.
Note: You can change the note length as you add a note, by holding down the mouse button and dragging left or right. While you drag, a help tag shows the precise end point and length of the note.
Tip: It might sometimes be difficult to grab the corner of very short notes. You can use the Finger tool, which allows you to grab notes anywhere to alter their length, or zoom in for a closer view.
The color of the note event changes and the horizontal line inside the event either lengthens or shortens. Get started with the Logic Pro Audio Track Editor The Audio Track Editor shows a close-up view of part of an audio track in the Tracks area, displaying the audio waveforms of the regions on the track. In the Audio Track Editor, you can move, trim, split, and join audio regions, play a region in isolation, and edit regions in other ways. Edits you make in the Audio Track Editor are non- destructive, so you can always return to your original recordings.
You can also quantize and edit the pitch of audio material in the Audio Track Editor using Flex Pitch. When you choose a Flex Pitch algorithm, the contents of the audio track are analyzed for pitch, and the results are displayed as a pitch curve overlaid on the waveform. Along the top of the Audio Track Editor is a ruler showing time divisions, based on the time format chosen in the LCD, and a menu bar with local menus.
The main area of the Audio Track Editor shows the audio waveform of the regions in the selected audio track.
Trim an audio region 1. In the Logic Pro Audio Track Editor, place the pointer over the lower-left or lower-right edge of the region. Drag the pointer to trim the beginning or end of the region. You can scrub regions to find the point where you want to cut by dragging across the regions with the Scissors tool. Before moving or deleting a segment of a split audio region, click to select it. Join regions 1. Select the split regions.
Turn on flex in the Audio Track Editor 1. Open the Audio Track Editor by doing one of the following:. Change the pitch of a note 1. When Show Advanced Tools is selected in the Advanced preferences pane, you can also edit the timing of individual notes, chords, or sounds in the Audio Track Editor using Flex Time. You can also open the Audio File Editor to make permanent destructive edits to the source audio file for a region. You can choose from different genres, and choose different drummers in each genre.
Each drummer has a specific drum kit and playing style. You can choose a drummer preset, edit drum settings to adjust the playing style, exchange drum kits, and choose individual drum sounds. To work with Drummer, you add a Drummer track to the project. A Drummer track is similar to a software instrument track, but it contains only Drummer regions, rather than MIDI regions. Both track and region parameters can be edited in the Drummer Editor.
In the Logic Pro toolbar, lick the Add Tracks button. Click the Drummer icon the drum kit at the top of the New Tracks dialog.
A Drummer track is added, along with one 8-bar region. The Library opens, and a default patch is loaded to the track. Choose a genre and drummer 1. In the Logic Pro Library, click a genre. The available drummers for the selected genre appear to the right of the genres. A preset consists of a number of region settings, visible to the right of the presets area.
The farther right you place the puck, the more complex the sound becomes; the higher you place the puck, the louder the sound plays. Choose a pattern variation for a drum or percussion instrument In the Logic Pro Drummer Editor, do any of the following:. Exchange a drum 1. The Exchange panel opens to the left if exchange pieces are available for that kit piece.
Click the Info button of a selected kit piece to view its description. Click the kit piece that you want to exchange in the Exchange panel. You may need to scroll in order to find the one you want to use.
The piece is exchanged and the respective drum sound is loaded. Click anywhere in the plug-in window background to close the panels.
You can click the lock to prevent any changes to the fills setting when switching presets or drummers. Note: The presence of ghost notes depends on the chosen drummer and the complexity setting.
Note: This is relevant only if the Hi-Hat is selected in the drum kit representation. Any changes or selections you make in the Drummer Editor affect only the selected region, not the entire track. Each Smart Control includes a set of screen controls that you can adjust to control the sound of the patch. Smart Controls typically include EQ or tone controls, reverb and other effects controls, and controls specific to the type of track or instrument.
For example, the Smart Control for a synthesizer might include screen controls for choosing the waveform and adjusting the resonance and filter cutoff, while one for a string instrument might include controls for changing the articulation. When you open the Smart Controls pane, you see the screen controls for the selected track. Each screen control is labeled to make its function easy to understand. Each screen control has a text label indicating what aspect of the sound it controls.
You can also change the layout for a Smart Control, save your own Smart Controls, map screen controls to channel strip and plug-in parameters, and assign controllers on your MIDI devices to screen controls. With Live Loops, you can play, arrange, and record new musical ideas in real time. Each musical phrase or loop exists in a cell in the Live Loops grid. You can start and stop playback of cells freely, while keeping everything in sync with the beat and the project tempo. You can start using Live Loops with an empty grid, or choose a Live Loops template with a set of instruments and prerecorded cells from the Project Chooser.
You can also add regions or loops from the Tracks area to the grid, and record a Live Loops performance to the Tracks area. Create an empty Live Loops project 1. Choose a Live Loops template 1. For more information about working with Live Loops, see the Live Loops overview. In the Mixer, each track has a channel strip that corresponds to its track type. You can also add effect plug-ins, change plug-in settings, and control the signal flow using sends and auxiliary aux channel strips.
You can try out the following tasks using either the inspector channel strips or the channel strips in the Mixer. When you solo a channel strip, the Mute buttons of all unsoloed channel strips flash. Choose a different plug-in In the Logic Pro Mixer, do one of the following:. For more information about channel strip controls, see Channel strip controls in Logic Pro.
Get started with Apple Loops in Logic Pro Apple Loops are prerecorded musical patterns that you can use to quickly add drum beats, rhythm parts, and other musical phrases to a project. Apple Loops contain musical patterns that can be repeated over and over, seamlessly. After you add a loop to the Tracks area, you can extend it to fill any amount of time. When you add an Apple Loop to a project, it automatically matches the project tempo and key.
Apple Loops are available in a variety of instruments, genres, and moods in the Loop Browser. You can also convert Drummer loops to software instrument loops by adding them to software instrument tracks, or convert them to audio loops by adding them to audio tracks. Keywords with no matching loops are dimmed.
You can adjust the preview volume, and choose a different key for the loop. After you add the loop to the Tracks area, you can drag it left or right to adjust the point where it starts playing. You can also search for loops by name, key, or time signature. Get started with Smart Tempo With Smart Tempo you can record a performance without the metronome and have Logic Pro adapt the project tempo to match the tempo of the recording, or keep the project tempo and flex the recording to match it.
You can create remixes using audio files and MIDI regions with different tempos that all conform to the project tempo, or adapt the project tempo to the tempo of an imported audio file or MIDI region. You can also use Smart Tempo with multitrack audio recordings.
You can set the default Project Tempo mode for a project in the Smart Tempo project settings. In the Logic Pro Tracks area, select the audio region. It also follows any changes to the project tempo.
You can view and edit Smart Tempo analysis results in the Smart Tempo Editor, including beat markers and other tempo information. After you record an audio or MIDI region or import a file using Smart Tempo, you can refine the tempo analysis and correct any tempo detection errors to define the musical intent more accurately.
When Adapt is the Project Tempo mode, tempo and time signature changes are transferred to the project tempo and time signature tracks. You can make quick tempo, beat, and timing adjustments, or make more complex edits to the tempo information for a single beat, a selection, or the entire file or region. If you have a SoundCloud account, you can share a project to SoundCloud, choose the quality and visibility level, and set permissions for the shared project from within Logic Pro.
Share the project to your iTunes library 1. To rename the shared file, select the name in the Title field, then enter a new name. Type artist, composer, and album information for the shared file in the respective text fields. Choose the quality level for the shared file from the Quality pop-up menu. When you share a project to iTunes, the entire project, from the beginning to the end of the last region, is exported.
Any silence at the beginning or end of the project is trimmed. If Cycle mode is on when you share the project, the part of the project between the start and end of the cycle region is exported. The shared project appears in the iTunes library, where you can add it to playlists, convert it, or burn it to a CD. The format of the shared project is determined by the iTunes import settings.
To rename the shared file, select the name in the File name field, then enter a new name. Choose the quality setting for the shared file from the Quality pop-up menu. The entire project, from the beginning to the end of the last region, is exported. Share a project to SoundCloud 1. Projects must have a title in the Title field. The remaining information is optional.
To return to Logic Pro without sharing the project, click Close. For details about sharing your projects, see Overview of sharing in Logic Pro. Logic Pro is a powerful, full-featured music app with all the tools you need to create professional-quality music productions. You can record, arrange, and edit audio and MIDI regions, add high-quality effects, mix your music in stereo or surround, and export the final mix in a variety of formats for distribution.
Using Logic Pro you can create many different kinds of projects, from simple songs to complex ensemble arrangements. Logic Pro gives you the flexibility to customize the app to suit your way of working.
You can also play and record third-party Audio Units software instruments. You can also define sections of the project and quickly rearrange them using arrangement markers. You can record automation changes in real time and edit them later. Use markers to define and quickly move to different sections of a project.
Logic Pro workflow overview To give you an idea of the possibilities, some major steps in putting together a Logic Pro project are described below. You could, for example, go all the way through mixing and adding effects, then add more recordings or media files to your project before finalizing the mix and sharing the finished project. Create a project You start working in Logic Pro by creating a new project to hold your musical material and all the changes you make. You can add tracks for your recordings and for media files you want to add to the project.
Media files and other assets can be saved in the project, or referenced in their current location. Record your material Add musical material by recording your performances in the Tracks area. You can record vocals, instruments, and other sounds on audio tracks. Using a USB keyboard or other MIDI controller, you can play and record a wide variety of software instruments on software instrument tracks. Apple Loops are prerecorded audio and MIDI files optimized to create repeating patterns that can be extended to fill any amount of time.
You can also add audio files, movies, and other prerecorded media files to a project. Recordings, loops, and other media files appear in the Tracks area as regions that you can can copy, move, resize, loop, and edit in other ways.
You can also use arrangement markers to define and easily rearrange entire sections of a project. For audio regions, you can also precisely edit the timing of individual notes and other events using Flex Time, and adjust the pitch of notes using Flex Pitch.
You can also edit Drummer regions in the Drummer Editor. Mix and add effects As your project takes shape, you mix it to balance the individual parts and blend them into a cohesive whole. In the Mixer, you can adjust volume levels and pan balance positions of tracks, and use routing and grouping to control the signal flow.
Logic Pro features a set of professional-quality effects plug-ins that you can use to enhance particular song components and create a polished final mix. You can control changes to mix, effects, and other parameters over time using automation. Make global changes You can manipulate different aspects of an overall project using global tracks, including the Arrangement track, Marker track, Signature track, Tempo track, and Transposition track.
For movie projects, you can also access the Movie track to view video frames and synchronize them with musical events.
Share your project When your project is ready to share, you can export a stereo file of your final mix in one of several standard audio file formats. You can also produce multiple stem files, formatted for most common surround encoding schemes. The main window is organized into different areas to help you focus on different aspects of your project, such as recording, arranging, and mixing.
Buttons in the control bar show or hide different areas of the app. You can customize the control bar to suit your way of working. You can show and hide the toolbar to optimize available screen space.
The available parameters change depending on the area in which you are working, and what type of item is selected. You can view and edit channel strip controls, customize routing options, and add and edit plug-ins in the Mixer. You can show or hide different areas as part of the main window. Some can also be opened as separate, movable windows.
You can also open multiple instances of the main window, and configure each one differently. The main elements of the Tracks area include:. The ruler lets you align items in the Tracks area and mark project sections, and has additional uses for various playback and recording tasks.
The workspace is the primary area for recording and arranging audio and MIDI regions. You can use the playhead to help align regions and other items, and for editing tasks, such as splitting regions. For information about working in the Tracks area, see Logic Pro Tracks area overview. Categories appear on the left, and patches for the selected category are displayed on the right. You can search for patches, create, save, and delete patches, and choose routing options. When a Drummer track is selected, you can choose drum genres and drummers in the Library, which apply to all regions in the Drummer track.
You can choose preset settings for the selected drummer from the left side of the Drummer Editor. Open the Library Do one of the following:. For information about using the Library, see Logic Pro patches overview. Logic Pro Inspector interface You can view and edit parameters for regions, tracks, and other items in the various inspectors. The parameters displayed depend on the type of item selected, and which working area has key focus.
If you change region parameters while the project is playing, you hear the changes immediately. All regions on the track are affected by the track parameters. The right channel strip shows the output for the left channel strip by default, but can also show an aux used by the left channel strip if one exists. You can adjust the level, pan, sends, and inserts, change effects, and control audio routing for these channel strips without opening the Mixer.
Inspectors for other working areas, such as the Event inspector, Display Parameters inspector, and Score inspector are described in their respective chapters. Open the inspector Do one of the following:. Logic Pro Mixer interface The Mixer shows the channel strips for every track in your project, including auxiliary and output channel strips, and the master channel strip.
This makes it easy to see and adjust relative levels and pan balance positions. You can also add effects, mute and solo tracks, use busses and sends to control the signal flow, and use groups to control multiple channel strips. Open the Mixer Do one of the following:. For more information about the Mixer, see Overview of mixing in Logic Pro. For information about using channel strip controls, see Channel strip controls in Logic Pro. Logic Pro Smart Controls interface Smart Controls let you quickly view and adjust the most important parameters of the selected track, without opening the Mixer or individual plug-in windows.
Each Smart Control features a set of screen controls. Adjusting a single screen control can modify one or more channel strip or plug-in parameters for the track. Each Smart Control has a set of screen controls optimized for the type of track or instrument. Screen controls are labeled to make their functions easier to understand. Open the Smart Controls pane Do one of the following:. Using the Audio Track Editor grid, you can precisely align edits with specific points in time.
When Flex Pitch is turned on, you can quantize the timing and pitch of audio regions, and adjust their pitch and gain in the Audio Track Editor inspector. All edits in the Audio Track Editor are non-destructive, so you can always return to your original recordings. Open the Audio Track Editor Do one of the following:. The position of each note on the grid shows the time position where it starts playing, its duration length , and pitch.
Note velocity is indicated by color. You can edit individual notes by moving them, resizing them, dragging them vertically to change their pitch, and in a variety of other ways.
Open the Piano Roll Editor Do one of the following:. The Drummer Editor shows settings for the selected Drummer region, including presets, an XY pad for adjusting the complexity and loudness of the region performance, and controls for editing performance parameters, including kit piece pattern variations and fill settings.
You can view and select a genre to view drummers for that genre, and then select a drummer, in the Library when a Drummer track is selected. A preset consists of all region settings, visible to the right of the presets area. You can use the default settings, or you can edit them and save your own presets.
You also have the option to play half time or double time for kick and snare. Adjust the shuffle feel of the region performance using the Swing knob. Click the Details button to reveal additional performance controls. Open the Drummer Editor Do one of the following:. The Drummer Editor opens below the Tracks area.
Lyrics, titles, and other text can also be included in the score. You can control the display of individual staffs, extract parts from the score, modify the overall score layout, and print or export complete scores, partial scores, and parts. Select musical symbols to add to the score, and customize the order of symbols in the Part box.
For more information about using the Score Editor, see Logic Pro music notation overview. You can easily add or edit note velocities or other controller data making some editing tasks, such as data scaling, much faster , or quickly create and edit MIDI drum parts.
When you select a row in the name column, its event definition is shown in the Lane inspector. Controller values, note velocity, and other values are indicated by the height of each beam taller beams indicate higher values. It displays the audio waveform of regions on an audio track. In the Audio File Editor, you can destructively edit audio files and regions , and use audio processing tools to quantize audio, change sample rates, and extract MIDI grooves from audio files.
Open the Audio File Editor Do one of the following:. Logic Pro project notes interface You can create, view, and edit notes for a project in the Project Notes pane. Each project can contain one set of project notes. You can also double-click the Project Text area. Open the Project Notes pane Do one of the following:. Logic Pro track notes interface You can create, view, and edit notes for each track in the Track Notes pane.
You can also double-click the Track Text area. Open the Track Notes pane Do one of the following:. For more information about track notes, see Add track notes in Logic Pro.
You can use it to make precise edits, and for other tasks better suited to numeric rather than graphic edits. You can display all events or limit them by category.
This view lets you see all regions in the current project. For more information, see Logic Pro Event List editor overview. You can create, select, and edit markers in the Marker List, and click a marker name to move the playhead to that marker position.
Use this area to enter or edit text for the selected marker. Open the Marker List Do one of the following:. Logic Pro Tempo List interface The Tempo List displays all the tempo events in the project, and lets you create and edit tempo events.
Logic Pro Signature List interface The Signature List shows all the time and key signature changes in your project, as well as any score symbols in the project score.
You can create, copy, move, and delete time and key signature events in the Signature List. You can browse for loops or search using various criteria, preview matching loops, and add them to your project by dragging them into the Tracks area. Matching loops appear in the results list below.
Click a loop to preview it, and drag a loop from the results list into the Tracks area to add it to your project. Logic Pro Project Audio Browser interface The Project Audio Browser shows the audio files used in the project, and displays an overview of the regions derived from each audio file.
You can add, edit, delete, and rename audio files and regions in the Project Audio Browser. Click the disclosure triangle to the left of an audio file to reveal regions associated with the file.
Also indicates file length using horizontal bars. Colored sections indicate the location and size of regions within the audio file. The Info column can also display waveform overviews. Click again to stop playback.
Use in combination with the Play button. Open the Project Audio Browser Do one of the following:. You can also import GarageBand projects into the current project.
Click the plus button to display additional search filters that allow you to narrow your search further. Results are displayed in the File list below. Open the All Files Browser Do one of the following:. A project is the document that contains all your recordings, the location of media files you add, and all the changes you make. You can have multiple projects open at the same time, and transfer media and other data between them. Projects can also contain assets including audio files, a movie file, instruments, and other files.
You can save assets with the project or reference them in another location. When Show Advanced Tools is selected in the Advanced preferences pane, you can save a project as either a single file package , or as a project folder containing the project file and subfolders for project assets. The basic elements of a Logic Pro project include the following:.
Tracks The horizontal rows in the Tracks area are called tracks. Tracks help you organize and control the sound of the recordings, loops, and other material in a project. You record your performances on tracks, and arrange the regions representing the recordings, loops, and other material in a project on tracks.
There are several types of tracks you can use in a Logic Pro project:. Folder tracks are not assigned to a channel strip in the Mixer. There are additional track types that do not contain regions, including auxiliary aux and output tracks, used for routing the output of other tracks; global tracks, used to control aspects of the overall project; and the master track, which you can use to control the overall volume level of the project.
For information about working with global tracks, see Logic Pro global tracks overview. Regions Regions are the building blocks of a project. Each time you make a recording, drag an Apple Loop to the Tracks area, or add a media file to your project, a region representing the recording or file appears in the Tracks area.
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